ĝhel-1 (and ghel-?), also as i-, u- or n-stem; ĝhelǝ- : ĝhlē-, ĝhlō- : ĝhlǝ- (*ĝhwel-)


ĝhel-1 (and ghel-?), also as i-, u- or n-stem; ĝhelǝ- : ĝhlē-, ĝhlō- : ĝhlǝ- (*ĝhwel-)
    ĝhel-1 (and ghel-?), also as i-, u- or n-stem; ĝhelǝ- : ĝhlē-, ĝhlō- : ĝhlǝ- (*ĝhwel-)
    English meaning: to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “glänzen, schimmern”; as Farbadjektiv: “gelb, grũn, grau or blau”
    Note: Root ĝhel-1 (and ghel-?), also as i-, u- or n-stem; ĝhelǝ- : ĝhlē-, ĝhlō- : ĝhlǝ- : to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun; derived from Root ĝel-, ĝelǝ-, ĝlē-, (also *gelēi- :) ĝ(e)lǝi- : light, to shine; to be joyful.
    Material: In view of the frequent cases, where IE palatals in Balto-Slav. are represented by velar, instead of through a concurrence of ĝel-, ĝhel- and ghel- agreeable with Persson(Beitr. 790) and Kretschmer (Gl. 21, 115) the Bal.-Slav. *gel- is defined through borrowing from a Centum language (Ven.-Illyr.?).
    Note: The enxtended root (*ĝhwel-)-nta, -na, -ta formants follow the model of Illyr. - Anatolian attribute nouns, adjectives. (see Alb. numbers). O.Ind. hári- “blond, yellow, golden, green yellow, pale”, hariṇá-ḥ “ gazelle “, harít- “falb”, hárita- “yellow, green”, híraṇya- n. “gold, Geld”, hiranyáya- “golden, goldig”; about haṭakan. “gold” s. Kuiper Proto-Munda 30; in addition being based on velar root O.Ind. ghoṭa- “horse” as originally “fox”? (Sommer IF. 31, 364 under A. 3); Av. zari- “yellow, yellowish, golden “, zairita- “yellow, paled-yellow “, zaranya-, O.Pers. daraniya- n. “gold”, zaranaēna “from gold, golden”, züra- m. “gall” (= Gk. χολή), named after the color as Gk. χόλος, Lat. fel, [common Lat. ghw- > ph- > f- phonetic mutation], O.N. gall usf.; with velar root anlaut gǝrǝðō-kǝrǝta- “ cutting out the gall “? (see Bartholomae AltIran. Wb. 523 with Lith.);
    Note: Alb. (*ĝhel-) diel ‘sun” : Ir. gealach f. “moon”, also Alb. dielë ‘sunday, day of the sun” [common Alb.-Illyr. ĝh- > d- phonetic mutation] : O.Pers. daraniya- n. “gold”. From Root ĝhel-1 (and ghel-?), also as i-, u- or n-stem; ĝhelǝ- : ĝhlē-, ĝhlō- : ĝhlǝ- : “to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun” derived Root dhel-1, dholo- : “curve; hollow”, Root dhel-2 : “light, shining”, Root dhel-3 : “to tremble” [common Alb.-Illyr. ĝh- > d- phonetic mutation]. Thrac. ζηλτα “gold” (?), Phryg. ζέλκια λάχανα Hes.; Phryg. γλουρός χρυσός and γλούρεα χρύσεα Hes. (from Gk. χλωρός borrowed??); Alb. dhelpërë, dhelpnë, dhelbun(e) “fox”, lit. “the Gelbe” (see Jokl Linguist. kulturhist. Stud. 297 ff.); Gk. χόλος “gall, rage, fury”, χολή “gall, rage, fury”, χολ-έρα “ stomach disease “, χλωρός “ pale green. green yellow, fresh, strong” (:O.Ice. glōr “ radiance “); Lat. fel, fellis (*fel-n-is) n. “gall” (older n-stem as O.H.G. galla), f probably dialect; WH. I 474, EM2 342 would be placed to fel and Lith. gel̃tas “yellow” etc. (see under) a root *gʷhel- (??);
    Note: Lat. fel, fellis (*fel-n-is) n. “gall” derived from root del : Alb. diel “yellow sun, (*hot, bitter, burning)” because of common Lat. d- > f- phonetic mutatIon. the normal development in Lat. helvus “ honey-yellow, golden “ (*ĝhelu̯os) = galloLat. gilvus “light yellow” (with dial. i from Gaul. *gelvos); in addition Lat. (h)olus, -eris (from *holos, *heleris) n., dial. folus, old helus, helusa “ herbage, vegetables, cabbage “; here also Lat. galbus “ xanthous bird”, galbinus “ green yellow “, whether Celt. or Illyr. Lw. (*ghel-bho- or *ghol-bho-, further to Lith. gul̃bis see under); Maybe Alb. gjelbër “green” : galbinus “ green yellow “. O.Ir. gel “luminous, white”, Ir. gealach f. “moon”; Welsh gell “yellow”, Bret. gell “brown” (*ĝhel-no-); in addition *ghlǝ- in Ir. Welsh Corn. Bret. glan “pure, clean”, Celt. FlN Glanis, Glanü , Ir. glain “glass, crystal” (*ghlǝni-), Welsh glain “gemstone, jewel” (*ghlǝni̯ o-); also in Ice. glana “ clear up “, glan “ radiance “, Nor. dial. glana ‘shimmer, gleam, shine, clear up “, Swe. dial. glana ‘shine weakly, stare, peek”, asäch. FlN Glana (further see under den s-extensions). O.Ice. gall n. “gall, poison “ (*gallōn-, IE *ghol-n-), O.E. gealla m., O.S. galla, intense f., O.H.G. galla, weak f. “gall”; zero grade O.Ice. gulr “yellow”, besides full grade O.E. geolo, O.S. O.H.G. gelo, gen. gelwes ds. (< *gelu̯a-); Goth. gulÞ n., O.Ice. gull, goll n., O.E. O.Fris. O.S. O.H.G. gold n. “gold”; Ablaut grade *ghlē- in O.Ice. glümr “moon”, glümsȳ ni “ optic deception, illusion “, Swe. glåmig “ gray-yellow in the face, with sunken eyes “, O.Ice. glǣ r “bright” (*glēi̯ a = Lith. žle jà under). *ĝhlō- (as in Gk. χλωρός) appears in O.E. glōm “ twilight, dawn, dusk” (yet ō before m is ambiguous), O.S. glōian , O.H.G. gluoen “burn”, glũhen ‘shine “, O.Ice. glōð “blaze, glow, glowing coal”, O.E. glǣ d f. “blaze, glow, flame, glowing coal, coal”, O.Fris. glēd “blaze, glow”, O.H.G. gluot “blaze, glow, glowing coals”; O.Ice. -glōr n. “ radiance “ (: χλωρός), O.Ice. glōra ‘sparkle, glitter”; s. also under S. 433 ĝhlōu-; Lith. želiù , že ́ liau, žé lti, Ltv. zel”u, zel̂t “be green”; ablaut. Lith. žã lias, Ltv. zal”š, O.Pruss. saligan “green”, Lith. žole ̃ , Ltv. zâle f. “grass, herb”, O.Pruss. sülin acc. “herb”, Lith. žã las “red” (from cattle); Lith. žì las “gray”, Ltv. zils “blue”, Lith. žel̃ vas “ greenish “, Ltv. zèlts (previous Neutr.) “gold”, E.Lith. žel̃ tas “golden”; Lith. žle jà “ twilight, Halbdunkel” (*ĝhlēi̯ü), Trautmann Bal.-Slav. Wb. 364 f., 368, 372; Lith. tulžì s “gall”, through Metath. from *žultì s; Ltv. žults ds. (*ĝhl̥t-); to u-stem in Lith. žal̃ vas, žel̃ vas (= Lat. helvus) “green”, žaliū̃ ke “grũner frog”, etc. s. Specht Decl. 120; O.C.S. zelenъ “green”, Ser.-Cr. zèlen, Cz. zelenū; Russ. zelḗ nyj, Pol. zielony ds. (compare O.Ind. híraṇya- “gold”; in addition O.C.S. zelije n. “ vegetables “, Russ. zelje “herb, Heilkraut”, Ser.-Cr. zêlje “ herbage “, Cz. zelí n. “herb, Kohl”); in addition also Russ. zoɫá “ash”, Bulg. zolá “Holzasche, out of it gekochte lye”; O.C.S. zlakъ “herb”, Russ. zlak “grass”, Bulg. zlakove “Gräser, Kräuter”; Slav. *zolto in O.C.S. zlato “gold”, Russ. zóɫoto, Ser.-Cr. zlâto, Cz. zlato, Pol. zɫoto ds., besides Slav. *zoltъ “golden” in Russ. zoɫotój, Sloven. zlât, Cz. zlatū, Pol. zloty “golden”; O.C.S. zlъčъ “gall” (*ĝhl̥-ki-s); Bulg. zlъčka “chicory” (z in volksetymolog. connection an zelenъ etc.?); compare under O.C.S. žlъtъ ds. with velar anlaut. Besides anlautendes Bal.-Slav. g- in: Bal.-Slav. *gelta- and *gilta- “yellow” in: Lith. gel̃tas “yellow” (therefrom gel̃svas “yellowish”); Ltv. dzęlts “yellow”, dzeltêt “yellow become”; therefrom derived O.Pruss. *geltaynan (Hs. gelatynan); Lith. geltónas; Ltv. dzeltains and dzèltãns “yellow”; Serb.- Church Slavic žlьtь, Ser.-Cr. žû t (f. žú ta); Cz. žlutý; Russ. žó ɫt (f. žeɫtá); in addition O.C.S. žlъtъ, žlъčь “gall”, Russ. žolčь, Bulg. žlъčka ds. and “chicory”, Ser.-Cr. žû č, Cz. žluč, Pol. żóɫć ds.; compare above mil palatal. anlaut O.C.S. zlъčь ds.; besides dem t-suffix in Farbadjektiv ein n-suffix in animal names Bal.-Slav. *gilnü- f. ‘specht” in Lith. gil̃na “Wacholderdrossel”, Ltv. dzil̂na ‘specht”; Slav. *žьlna in Russ.- Church Slavic žlъna, Ser.-Cr. dial. žlná ‘schwarzspecht”, Pol. žó ɫna “Bienenspecht”, Russ. žeɫná ‘schwarzspecht”; with other suffix Cz. žluva f. “Pirol” (from Slav. žьlva; compare in addition above Lat. helvus and with palatal. anlaut Lith. želvas “ greenish “, in addition žalve f. “Rispengras”, želvỹ s m. “grũnender stem”); here probably also (compare but ohen S. 428 under ĝel-) O.Pruss. gulbis, Lith. gul̃bis m. (*golbhi̯o-) gulbė f., Ltv. gùl̃bis ‘swan” and “weiße cow” (hence not to ghel- “call, shout, cry”); further with unexplained k-: Slav. *kъlpь, *kъlpъ in O.Sor. koɫṗ, kaschub. kôɫp ds., Russ. kóɫpik m. “Löffelreiher”; in addition further Russ. goɫubój, O.Pruss. golimban “blue”, Lith. gelumbe ̃ f. “blaues kerchief, cloth”, O.Bulg. golǫbь “dove”, Ser.-Cr. gȍlūb m. ds., Cz. holub ds., etc.; zur formation compare Lat. columba, palumbēs ds.; Root extensions with Dental: ĝhlǝd- in O.E. glæterian ‘splendescere”, participle “flavus”; M.L.G. glate, M.H.G. glaz m. “Glatze”. ĝhlend(h)- “gleam, see, show, glance, look” in: O.Ir. as-gleinn “er belehrt”, in-glennat “investigant”, fo-gliunn “I learn”, Bret. goulenn “long, want”; O.Ir. do-gliunn “I sammle” (Verbaln. díglaimm), Bret. dilenn “auswählen”, gallorom. glennüre “ Ähren lesen” (glenn- < *glendn- s. Pedersen KGk. I 157, II 539), glése “gleaming” (<*glendtio-); Bret. glein “clear, bright” (*glandi̯o-, IE *ghln̥dhi̯o-); Nor. dial. gletta “peek”, glett “clear Fleck am sky, heaven”, Swe. dial. glänta “hervorschimmern, ein wenig öffnen”, M.H.G. glinzen ‘shimmer, gleam”, O.H.G. M.H.G. glanz “gleaming”, M.H.G. glanz, glunz “ radiance “, O.H.G. M.H.G. glenzen “gleam”; Swe. glindra “glitzern”, M.H.G. glander “gleaming, glimmering “, glander m. n. “ radiance, Schimmer”; compare with other meaning under ĝhlend(h)-; Bal.-Slav. *glendi̯ō “look, see” (with anlaut. Velar) in: Ltv. (kurisch) glendi ‘search, seek”; Slav. *ględjǫ, *ględěti in: Russ. gljadě́tь ‘see, show, glance, look”, Ser.-Cr. glédîm, Cz. hledím, hleděti ds. and as originally iterative O.C.S. ględati “βλέπειν”, Bulg. glédam, Ser.-Cr. glȅdâm, glȅdati, O.Cz. hladati, Pol. glądać ‘see, see, show” (Trautmann 92 f). Here ghlüdh-, ĝhlǝdh- “gleaming, smooth “? Lat. glaber “ smooth, unbehaart, naked, bald, bleak” (*ghlǝdh-ro-); O.Ice. glaðr “ smooth, gleaming, blithe, glad”, gleðia, glaða “ gladden, unterhalten”, O.E. gloed̄̆ “gleaming, glimmering, blithe, glad, joyful, gratifying, pleasant”, gladian “gleam, shimmer, glänzendmachen, caress, comfort, gladden “, O.Fris. gled “ smooth “, O.S. gladmōd (= O.E. glædmōd ) “ cheerful “, O.H.G. glat “gleaming”, M.H.G. glat “gleaming, smooth “; with intensive gemination M.H.G. glatz “Kahlkopf, Glatze” (compare M.H.G. glitze “ radiance; Kahlkopf”); Lith. glodùs, glõdnas “ smooth anliegend, gentle”, glódžiu, glósti “polish, smooth”, Ltv. glaštu, glãstît “ caress”, O.Pruss. glosto “whetstone”; O.C.S. gladъ-kъ “ smooth, eben”, Russ. gɫádkij “ smooth “, Bulg. gladъkъ “ smooth, poliert”, Ser.-Cr. gladak, Cz. hladkū, Pol. gɫadki “ smooth, beautiful, cute “; causative Russ. gɫáditь ‘smooth, plätten, caress”, Bulg. gládja, Ser.-Cr. glȁditi, Cz. hladiti, Pol. gɫadzić ds. (Trautmann 91). further with nasal infix ĝhlend(h)- “glide, slide” in N.Ger. glandern ‘schliddern”, glander “Eisscholle” (perhaps also O.E. glendrian, glentrian “verschlingen, herabstũrzen” as “glide, slide lassen”); Nor. gletta, Swe. mda. glinta “glide, slide” (compare above gletta “peek”); Lith. galándu, galą́sti “ sharpen, schleifen”, Ltv. galuods “whetstone”, O.Pruss. glandint “ comfort “, glands “ consolation “ (compare to meaning above O.E. gladian “ caress, comfort “; compare above ghlend(h)- “gleam”); about Lith. glembù, glèbti “ smooth, soft become” see under gel- “ clench “. s- and st-extensions: Ir. glass “green, gray, blue”, Welsh glas “blue”, Bret. glaz “green”, Gaul. glastum n. 1. “Waid, Isatis tinctoria”, 2. “Heidelbeere” (M.-L. 3779b); with einfachem -s- gallorom. *glasina “Heidelbeere” (M.-L. 3779a); to Ir. glass still O.Ir. glaiss f. “river”, M.Ir. glaisīn “Waid”, M.Corn. glesin ‘sandix”, in addition M.H.G. glast “ radiance “, glanst ds., glanster ‘spark”, glasten “gleam”, ablaut. glosten, glusten; Lat.-Gmc. glēsum “Bernstein” = O.E. glǣ r m. “Bernstein, resin”, O.H.G. glüs “Bernstein”, O.Ice. glǣ sa “gleaming make, verzieren”, ablaut. Nor. dial. glōsa ‘sparkle, glitter, gleam, shine, glance, look”, O.Ice. gløsi-ligr “gleaming”; O.Ice. gler n. “glass”, O.E. with s: glæs n. “glass”, O.Fris. gles, O.S. glas, gles n. “glass”, O.H.G. glas “glass”; O.S. glaso “Grauschimmel”, M.Eng. glaren “gleam”, M.L.G. glaren “gleam, glow”. ĝhlei- lies before in Gk. (poet.) χλίω “warm or soft become, indulge oneself, lusciously leben”, χλιαίνω “warm make, erweichen”, χλιαρός “warm, lukewarm”; Ir. glé, Welsh gloew “gleaming, clear, bright” (< *ghlei-u̯o), gledd (*ghlii̯ü) “grũner lawn”, M.Ir. gléinech “clear, bright”, M.Welsh try-lwyn “very distinct”; O.N. gljü “glitzern”, O.Fris. glīa “glow”, O.E. glǣ m “ radiance “, O.S. glīmo “ radiance “, O.H.G. glīmo, gleimo “Glũhwũrmchen”, M.H.G. glīmen “gleam, shine, gleam”, glimmen “glow, gleam”, Nor. dial. glīna “gleam, stare”, Swe. glina “lächeln”, glena “gleam, shine, sich aufklären, laugh “. ĝhleid-: Gk. χλιδή “ softness, luxuriance, Luxus”, χλιδᾶν “ mushy, softish, delicate, mollycoddle, luscious sein”; Goth. glitmunjan “gleam”, O.Ice. glita, glitra “glitzern”: full grade O.S. glītan “gleißen”, O.H.G. glīzzan “gleam”, glitzen intensive in addition, O.Ice. glit n., O.H.G. glī̆ z “ radiance, lightning”, glizemo ds., O.E. glitenian, O.H.G. glizinōn ‘shimmer”. Here probably also ĝhleidh- “glide, slide”: O.E. glīdan “ausgleiten, fall”, glidder ‘schlũpfrig”, O.Fris. glīda “glide, slide”, O.S. glīdan “labi”, O.H.G. glītan “glide, slide”; O.E. ü-glǣ dan “glide, slide make”, asäch. bi-glēdian ds., O.Ice. gleiðr ‘spreizbeinig”. About Lith. glitùs “ smooth “ see under glei- by gel- “ clench “. ĝhleis-: Gaul. glīso-margа f. “Gleißmergel”, gallorom. *glīso-, older *glēso- (IE *ghlei-s-o-); compare Welsh glwys “beautiful”, O.Bret. glois, gloes ds. (*ghlei-st-o); O.Ice. glissa ‘spöttisch laugh “, O.E. glīsian, glisnian “gleam, shine”, O.Fris. glisia ‘shimmer, blink”, M.H.G. glistern ‘sparkle, glitter”, Nor. Swe. glīsa “gleam, shimmer”; nasalized M.H.G. glinsten “gleam”, glinster “ radiance “. ĝhleu- and ĝhlōu-: ĝhlū- perhaps in Gk. χλό(F)ος, χλοῦς “grũngelbe or hellgrũne paint, color”, χλόη “young Saat, young grass”, χλο(F)ερός “green, fresh, strong”; further in Ir. gluair (*ghleu-ri-) “clear, bright, pure, clean”; Welsh glo “coal”, Corn. glow, M.Bret. glou, O.Bret. glaou (see Pedersen KGk. I 63). Goth. glaggwō “genau”, glaggwaba ‘sorgsam”, O.Ice. glǫggr, gløggr “clear, bright, distinct, painstaking, stingy”, O.E. glēaw, O.S. glau, O.H.G. N.Ger. glau ‘scharfsichtig, smart”, O.Ice. gluggi “Lichtöffnung, window”. (Zur Zusammenstellung these words with Lith. žvelgiù , žvel̃ gti “glance, look” vergleiche Trautmann 374.) ĝhlōu- in O.Ice. glōa “glow, gleam, gleam, shine”, O.E. glōwan “fulminare”, O.Ice. himinglǣ va “Tochter Ä girs and the Rün ” (Verkörperung the surge); -glō- f. ‘sun”, -glōa f. “moon”; s. also above S. 430 under ĝhlō-. ĝhlū-̆ : Nor. dial. glym̄ a “finster, threatening or lauernd blicken”, O.S. glūna ‘scheel blicken”, E.Fris. glūmen “verdeckt and clandestine after etwas sehen and lurk”; O.Ice. glūmr m. “bear”. In addition s-(st-)extensions: Ir. gluss (*ĝhlustu-) “light, Helligkeit”; O.Ice. glys “ radiance, Putz”, Mod.Ice. glosa ‘strahlen”, M.H.G. glosen, glosten “glow, gleam”, gloste “blaze, glow”, M.L.G. glūren “lurk”, Eng. to glower “finster blicken”, steIr. gloren “ stare “, Nor. dial. glȳra ‘seitwärts blicken, schielen, blink”, O.Ice. glyrna f. “eye”, Nor. glōr ds. ĝhlū̆d- : M.Eng. glouten, Eng. to glout “ stare, grieving or grumpy, surly, sullen aussehen”, to gloat (< *glotian) “hämisch blicken, anstarren”, O.Ice. glotta “grinsen”, M.H.G. Ger. glotzen. Maybe Alb. glemb “thorn, vegetation”, gjelbër “green”
    References: WP. I 623 f., 624 ff., WH. I 473 f., 514, 578 f., 600, 607 f., 639, 654, 868, Trautmann 83 f., 88, 364 f., 368, 372, Persson Beitr. 170 f., 790 ff., 876 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • dhel-1, dholo- —     dhel 1, dholo     English meaning: curve; hollow     Deutsche Übersetzung: “Wölbung” and “Höhlung” (from “Biegung”)     Note: From Root ĝhel 1 (and ghel ?), also as i , u or n stem; ĝhelǝ : ĝhlē , ĝhlō : ĝhlǝ : “to shine; green, gold,… …   Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary

  • dhel-3 —     dhel 3     English meaning: to tremble     Deutsche Übersetzung: “zittern, trippeln”?     Note: From Root ĝhel 1 (and ghel ?), also as i , u or n stem; ĝhelǝ : ĝhlē , ĝhlō : ĝhlǝ : “to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun” derived Root dhel 1 …   Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary

  • dhel-2 —     dhel 2     English meaning: light, shining     Deutsche Übersetzung: “leuchten, hell”     Note: From Root ĝhel 1 (and ghel ?), also as i , u or n stem; ĝhelǝ : ĝhlē , ĝhlō : ĝhlǝ : “to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun” derived Root dhel 1 …   Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary